Physical Resources


The land has been classified into 6 categories. About 41.67% of the total area is actually developed to agriculture while about 5.70% remains under fallow lands. Again about 11.44% of the land may be brought under cultivation by improving the techniques and reclamation of the marginal area. About 1.27% is barren and uncultivable while 33.09% is in the form of forest, 6.83% land is developed to building, roads etc. It is quite obvious that the land has been not brought under plough, because 11.44% of the total land can be brought under cultivation by reclamation.

farmers in work on farm

A big quantity of land fallow and other uncultivable which can be brought under cultivation using varies methods and technology for land reclamation.

If we analysis the land which is although not used in cultivation, but that land may brought under cultivation by improving the techniques and reclamation of the marginal area. This figure is maximum in Ambikapur tahsil(28.03) .

It is evident from the land use pattern that the possibility of extension of area shown is very bold , which is clear indication of the need of extension of shown area . The Distribution Of Cultivated Land

The Distribution of the Cultivated Land :

Agriculture area in district.

The distribution of the cultivated land bring forth the pattern and intensity of the land resources utilization, which is the outcome of early start of agriculture practice, dependency and the extent of pressure population combined with the physical factors. The areas of high concentration of cultivated and generally, are those where people have settled earlier and started agricultural practices for getting their food and as the population went on increasing the extension of cultivated land also took place as long as the physical condition such as soil , surface topography and water etc. permitted.

The distribution of cultivated land over entire area varies from 14.5%(Odgi) to 74.51%(Ambikapur). The high values are distributed in a sporadic way . Actually there are three pockets of relatively high category.

  1. Including Ambikapur block, where 74.51% of total geographical area is devoted under
  2. Including entire Sitapur block with concentration figure 69%. This group also includes Batoli block where 67.50%of total geographical area is devoted to agriculture
agriculture area

In this way three pockets about 55% of cultivated land is devoted to production of cereals .Low concentration of cultivated land is in the uplandand high lands i.e. Odagi ,part of Pratappur ,South Udiapur ,Premnagar and Balrampur block and medium category is found Kusmi, Shankargarh ,Rajpur, Ramchandrapur ,Wadrafnagar, Pratappur and Bhaiyathan blocks.

Physical Resources: Soil

soil and small plants

Soil of Surguja district can be broadly classified in four major classes:

  1. Red and Yellow Soils
  2. Alluvial Soils
  3. Laterite Soils
  4. Mediumblue Soils

    1. Red and Yellow Soils:

        This soil derived from the parent rocks of Gondwana System including sedimentary rocks. In-situ and form the decomposition of such rocks worked by rain. This soil comprises particularly in the east Sitapur, south Ambikapur and central Surajpur, Pratappur blocks.

        Red color is due to wide diffusion of iron. Hydration of ferric oxide results yellow color of soil. This soil is of lighter in texture ,porous and friable structure. Soluble salt is found in little quantity .Lime ,kankar and free kankar are totally absent. These soils are poor in potash, nitrogen ,humus and carbonate and differ greatly in consistency, color, depth and fertility. On the uplands they are thin and gravelly, sandy, porous and light colored.

    1. Alluvial Soils:

        Such soils are found in the river sides and are generally transported soil with alternative layers of sand and silt. These soils contain adequate amounts of potash and limes but are deficient in nitrogen, phosphoric acid and humus. East Ramanujganj, North Ambikapur, Surajpur are areas of alluvial soil in their river vicinity i.e. the Rihand, the Kanhar, the Hasdo and their major tributaries . There is no uniformity in color every where but it’s color varies from yellow to grey.

    1. Laterite Soils :

        It is the end product of decomposition found in region of heavy rainfall which promotes leaching of soil whereby lime and silica are leached away and a soil rich I oxide s of iron and aluminum composed is justify behind. Owing to the presence of iron oxides they are generally red in color and poor in nitrogen, potash, potassium and organic matter.

        These soils are well developed on the summits of the pat regions of samri and sitapur tehsil including Shankargargh, Kusmi, Sitapur, Batoli and Mainpat blocks of Mainpat, Jamirapat, Lahsunpat and Jonkpat. On the basis of color laterite soil can be divided as

      1. Dark red laterite
      2. White laterite
    1. Black Soils :

        The origin of this soil is ascribed to basaltic and trap rocks, from where the materials brought down from interior covered by these rocks. These soils are found in West Ramunjganj, Central Pratappur and East Kusmi blocks. Mediumblue soils consists of deep mediumblue, medium mediumblue, shadow mediumblue and mediumblue soils undifferentiated etc.

        These soils are highly retentive of moisture and extremely compact and tenacious when wet. They are rich in iron, lime, calcium, magnesium carbonates and alumina, but are poor in phosphorus, nitrogen and organic matter. This soil claims fine texture with color. Because of retentively of moisture, fines and chemical matters these soils are endowed with inexhaustible fertility.

Physical Resources: Forest

About 58% of the area in the district lies under forests. The total geographical area being 18,188.44 sq km. and the forest occupy 10,849.079 sq Km. The flora of Nazzul and other areas are changing frequently with the human activities and land-use.

Herd of elephants grazing

Climate, soil and biotic factors are the functions of natural vegetation. Out of these three climate factor which includes rainfall, temperature and their combination along with seasonal variations too. Adequate moisture results luxuriant growth of forests big and small tree, shrubs, climbers, parasite etc. in height density variety of species and rate of growth.

In Surguja rainfall varies between 100-200 cms, mean annual temperature 260C-270C and humidity 60-80% resulting monsoon deciduous forests. The tree of such forests shed their leaves during spring and early summer when the storage of water is more acute. Reduction of sub-soil water table not enough to allow the trees to keep their leaves all the year around. These forests are the most important forests, yielding commercial timber and various other forest products of high value.

Geographical Area (Area in sq.K.m) Total Forest Reserved Forest Unreserved Forest Uncategorised Forest
27037.053 14948.963 5621.252 8311.207 1016.509(55.29%)

Physical Resources : Minerals

Minerals belts of surguja :

  1. Upper catchments of river or Sitapur-Samri belt : This belt is associated with eastern and south eastern part of the district. It abound Bauxite and some amount of Coal.
  2. Central-North Surguja (Wadrafnagar-Pal –Pratappur-Surajpur-Ambikapur) belt: The reserve of coal, Pyritic minerals, Sulpher, mica Berylluiim, Byrites, Copper, Galena are reported. Bishrampur, Bhatgaon, Tatapani, Ramkola, Lakhanpur and Basen are main coal fields. Some Fire-clay , Mica, Coal, Galena, silmenite are also reported in Wadrafnagar on U.P. border.

Bauxite :

        In Surguja Bauxite deposit have been found in tertiary rocks. Due to decay and weathering of aluminum rich rocks, Felspar usually kaoliniesd under tropical monsoonal condition, the weathering goes a step further and result in a residum rich in hydroxides of aluminum together with oxides of iron, manganese and titanium sufficient contraction of aluminum hydroxides, economic deposits of bauxite originates. This process of ‘Bauxitisation’ as it is called thrives well on a topographically elevated well drained plateaus of low relief. The recoverable reserves of bauxite in Surguja is 57.54 million tones, which is around 57% of total state reserve.

        Out of 57.74 million tones, 42.21 million tones are under proved category, 13.56 million tones under probable category and remaining 1.76 million tones under are possible category. About 51 million tones of the total reserves are of metallurgical grade and the grade particular of 6 million tones are not known.

        The economical deposits are located at entire pat (local name given to plateau or pleatux) region of eastern and south eastern Surguja including Mainpat,Samari and Jamirapat.

Bauxite is of good and thickness varies from 4-5 meters at Mainpat. Chemical composition is as follows :
Chemical Composition Ratio Percentage
Al2O3 45.5 – 50.9%
Fe2O3 10.9-18.2%
LOl 21.6-24.9%
SiO2 0.07-5.22%
TiO2 9.24-11.2%

Coal :

        Most of the coal in the Gondwana is found in barakar series. Coal as a solid stratified rock composed mainly of hydro carban and capable of being used as a fuel to supply heat or light or both.

        The coal fields of Surguja belongs to Gondwana coal fields. The coal of this area is of good quality stream and gas coals. The coal fields of Surguja can be classified as-

  1. Middle Gondwana Coal Fields: Tatapani-Ramkola, Jhilmili and Sonhat
  2. Talchir Coal Fields: Bisrampur, Bansar, Lakhanpur, Panchbhaini and Damha-munda.
  3. Mahanadi Valley: Hasdo-Rampur.

Physical Resources : Agriculture

        About 90% of the working population is depended on agriculture, in which 50.36% of working population are of cultivated and about 12.77% of the region are agriculture labourer.

        Agriculture is directly connected with land and water resources. In Surguja the percentage concentration of cultivated land is maximum in central zone of the district stretching east to west direction. North and south of this one the percentage of concentration decreases, because of several factors, out of them here are two major factors.

        The uplands and high lands are mostly covered with rocky wastelands, infertile soil, woods and scrubs, sloppy and forested area.

        Unavailability of water for irrigation over most of area, improper drainage difficulty in digging wells due to rocky basement, undeveloped means of communication, transportation have restricted the extension of cultivated land.

        On the other hand, the central surguja is relatively leveled, has got fertile soils and some water is available for irrigation in various ways and means of communication is developed .

Double Cropped Area :

        Double cropped area is generally associated with water supply, natural or artificial and the pressure of population. Wherever the physical condition permits and the pressure more over the land, two crops are raised in a year from the same field. As result, a particular pattern of use of land resources emerges, which helps in the delineation of planning regions on the basis of present available resources and the limit of their utilization. Of course there is no uniformity in the distribution of double cropped area, but the study of it’s distribution will be of use in the need as well as the resources.

  Thus most of the concentration is to be found in two patches:

  1. Ramanujnagar block
  2. Ambikapur & Central North-East of Lundra , Rajpur, Shankargarh, Wadragnagar and Pratappur blocks.

        Almost whole of the central plain has got medium to relatively high value, with few exception due to local condition. In this part during summer most of the area remains uncultivated. Only in Ambikapur block here is some concentration of double cropped area due to irrigation facilities. The per capital land is declining due to the increasing in rural population which can be fed by increasing the per acre output through bringing more and more cultivated land under double cropped system, by extending irrigation facilities, using better fertilizers and better culture.

Pattern of Crop Distribution :

        The assessment of physical condition for different crops helps in arranging them so as to derive the optimum return of it, which may be done through the study of their distribution along with the average production. The production of land provided to different crops depends upon physically suitability of soil and availability of water etc. Not only this the local needs is also important in this connection.

        Roughly 41.67% out of the total geographical area is under cultivation. The relative importance of different crops can be studied from table:

Crops Cereals Oil Seeds Pulses Fruits/Vegetables Others
% Of Total shown area 75.75 12.45 9.88 1.51 0.41

        The distribution of crops is typical of an under developed economy, where the combination is in such a way that every aspect of economic need is expected form the agriculture. On the whole cereals are predominant followed by oil seeds and pulses, but fruits and vegetables are more important. All of the area in the region is dominantly rice producing.